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Pg. 16

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A Practical Protocol for Electromedical
Treatment of Pain

Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians

Daniel L. Kirsch, Ph.D., D.A.A.P.M., F.A.I.S.


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Kotter, G.S., Henschel, E.O., Hogan, Walter J., et al. (1975). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in man by the transcranial application of low intensity pulsed current. Gastroenterology, 69, 359-363.

Krupitsky, E.M., Burakov, G.B., Karandashova, JaS., et al. (1991). The administration of transcranial electric treatment for affective disturbances therapy in alcoholic patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 27, 1-6.

Krupisky, E.M., Katznelson, Ya.S., Lebedev, V.P., et al. (1991). Transcranial electrostimulation (TES) of brain opioid structures (BOS): Experimental treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and clinical application. Presented at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, New Orleans, November 10-15.

Kulig, K., Jarski, R., Drewek, E., et al. (1991). The effect of microcurrent stimulation on CPK and delayed onset muscle soreness. Physical Therapy, 71, 6(suppl.).

Levitt, E.A., James, N., & Flavell, P. (1975). A clinical trial of electrosleep therapy with a psychiatric inpatient sample. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 9, 287-290.

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Lichtbroun, A.S., Raicer, M.S., & Smith, R.B. (2001). The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2), 72-78.

Lundeberg, T.C., Eriksson, S.V., & Maim, M. (1992). Electrical nerve stimulation improves healing of diabetic ulcers. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 29(4), 328-331.

Madden, R.E., & Kirsch, D.L. (1987). Low intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves human learning of a psychomotor task. American Journal of Electromedicine, 2(2/3), 41-45.

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McKenzie, R.E., Rosenthal, S.H., & Driessner, J.S. (1971). Some psychophysiologic effects of electrical transcranial stimulation (electrosleep). American Psychiatric Association, Scientific Proceedings Summary. Also in The nervous system and electric currents (1976). N.L. Wulfsohn, and A. Sauces, (Eds.). New York: Plenum. 163-167.

Melzack, R. (1975). Prolonged pain relief by brief, intense transcutaneous somatic stimulation. Pain, 1, 373-375.

Mercola, J.M., & Kirsch, D.L. (1995). The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy (MET) in conventional medical practice. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 8(2), 107-120.

Moore, J.A., Mellor, C.S., Standage, K.F., & Strong, H. (1975). A double-blind study of electrosleep for anxiety and insomnia. Biological Psychiatry, 10(1), 59-63.

Mulder, G.D. (1991). Treatment of open-skin wounds with electric stimulation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72, 375-377.

Ng, L.K.Y., Douthitt, T., et M. (1975). Modification of morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats following transauricular electrostimulation: An experimental paradigm for auricular electroacupuncture. Biological Psychiatry, 10, 575-580.

O'Connor, M.E., Bianco, F., & Nicholson, R. (1991). Meta-analysis of cranial electrostimulation in relation to the primary and secondary symptoms of substance withdrawal. Presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, June 14.

Overcash, S.J. (1999). A retrospective study to determine the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on patients suffering from anxiety disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine, 16(1), 49-51.

Overcash, S.J., & Siebenthall, A. (1989). The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and multisensory cognitive therapy on the personality and anxiety levels of sub-stance abuse patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2), 105-111.

Passini, F.G., Watson, C.G., & Herder, J. (1976). The effects of cerebral electric therapy (electrosleep) on anxiety, depression, and hostility in psychiatric patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 163(4), 263-266.

Patterson, M. (1983). Getting off the hook. Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers.

Patterson, M., Firth, J., & Gardiner, R. (1984). Treatment of drug, alcohol and nicotine addiction by neuroelectric therapy: Analysis of results over 7 years. Journal of Bioelectricity, 3(1/2), 193-221.

Pert, A., Dionne, R., & Ng, L.K.Y., et al. (1981). Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following trans-auricular electroacupuncture. Brain Research, 224, 83-94.

Pozos, R.S., Richardson, A.W., & Kaplan, H.M. (1971). Electroanesthesia: A proposed physiologic mechanism. In D.V. Reynolds & A. Sjoberg (Eds.), Neuroelectric research (pp. 110-113). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Reigel, D.H., Dallmann, D.E., Christman, N.T., et al. (1970). Physiological effects of electrotherapeutic currents in the primate and man. In F.M. Wageneder & St. Schuy (Eds.). Electrotherapeutic sleep and electroanesthesia. (Vol. II) pp. 158-165). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Reigel, D.H., Larson, Si., Sances, A., Jr., et al. (1971). Effects of electrosleep currents on gastric physiology. In D.V. Reynolds & A. Sjoberg (Eds.). Neuroelectric research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Richter, W.R., Zouhar, R.L., Tatsuno, J., et al. (1972). Electron microscopy of the macaca mulatta brain after repeated applications of electric current. Anesthesiology, 36(4), 374-377.

Robinson, K.R. (1925). Digby's receipts. Annals of Medical History, 7, 216-219.

Rowley, B.A., McKenna, J.M., Chase, G.R., & Wolcott, L.E. (1974). The influence of electrical current on an infecting microorganism in wounds. Annals of the New York Acadamy of Science, 238, 543-551.

Salar, G., et al. (1981). Effect of transcutaneous electrotherapy on CSF (3-endorphin content in patients without pain problems. Pain, 10, 169-172.

Schmitt, R., Capo, T., Frazier, H., & Boren, D. (1984). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation treatment of cognitive brain dysfunction in chemical dependence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 60.

Singh, B., China, G.S., Anand, B.K., et al. (1971). Sleep and consciousness mechanism with special reference to electrosleep. Armed Forces Medical Journal (New Delhi), 27(3), 292-297.

Smith, R.B. (1975). Electrosleep in the management of alcohol-ism. Biological Psychiatry, 10, 675.

Smith, R.B. (1982). Confirming evidence of an effective treatment for brain dysfunction in alcoholic patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 170(5), 275-278.

Smith, R.B. (1999). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of stress related cognitive dysfunction with an eighteen month follow-up. Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17(6), 14-18.

Smith, R.B. (2001). Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective. American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2), 62-66.

Smith, R.B., & Shiromoto, F.N. (1992). The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to block fear perception in phobic patients. Current Therapeutic Research, 51(2), 249-253.

Stanfield, B. (2000). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485.

Stromberg, B.V. (1988). Effects of electrical currents on wound contraction. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 21, 121-23.

Taylor, D.N. (1991). Effects of cranial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in normal subjects at rest and during stress. Doctoral dissertation, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York.

Thuile, C., & Kirsch, D.L. (2000). Schmerzen Linden ohne Chemie: CES, die Revolution in der Schmerztherapie (in German). IGEM, Austria.

Toriyama, M. (1975). Ear acupuncture anesthesia. Ear Throat, 47, 497-501.

Turaeva, V.A. (1967). Treatment of eczema and neurodermatitis by electrosleep. In F.M. Wageneder, & St. Schuy (Eds.). Electrotherapeutic sleep and electroanaesthesia. (pp. 203-204). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation.

Von Richthofen, C.L., & Mellor, C.S. (1980). Electrosleep therapy: A controlled study of its effects in anxiety neurosis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 25(3), 213-229.

Voris, M.D. (1995). An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles (pp. 1-19). Dallas: Delos MindBody Institute.

Weiss, D.S., et al. (1990). Electrical stimulation and wound healing. Archives of Dermatology, 126, 222-225.

Weiss, M.F. (1973). The treatment of insomnia through use of electrosleep: An EEG study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 157(2), 108-120.

Wharton, G.W., et al. (1982; 1983). The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in spinal cord injury patients. A poster study presented at the American Spinal Injury Association Meeting, New York, and at the Texas ASIA meeting in Houston.

Wilson, A.S., Reigel, D., Unger, G.F., et al. (1970). Gastric secretion before and after electrotherapeutic sleep in executive monkeys. In F.M. Wageneder & St. Schuy (Eds.). Electrotherapeutic sleep and electroanesthesia. (Vol. II, pp. 198-206). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Windsor, R.E., Lester, J.E, & Herring, S.A. (1993). Electrical stimulation in clinical practice. Physician and Sports Medicine, 21, 85-93.

Winick, R.L. (1999). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): A safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in dental practice. General Dentistry, 47(1), 50-55.

Wolcott, L.E., Wheeler, P.C., & Hardwicke, H.M. (1969). Accelerated healing of skin ulcers by electrotherapy. Southern Medical Journal, 62, 795-801.

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Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians • Chapt. 61 • 2002

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A Practical Protocol for Electromedical Treatment of Pain